In November 1917 British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour issues a declaration stating the British Government’s support for “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.” The Bolsheviks seize power in Russia and proclaim to the world that the new government intends to negotiate an “immediate democratic peace.” Prime Minister Kerensky escapes Petrograd and rallies the Army in an attempt to retake control, but is defeated and goes into hiding. Trotsky publishes the text of confidential diplomatic communications and secret treaties with foreign governments discovered in the Russian Foreign Office. Armistice negotiations between Russia and Germany begin. On the Western Front, the battle of Passchendaele comes to an end after weeks of intense combat and high casualties on both sides. The British Army launches a surprise tank attack at Cambrai; initial gains are lost in German counterattacks. Allied leaders meet in Rapallo to coordinate strategy. French Prime Minister Painleve is forced to resign after losing a vote of confidence; former Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau assumes leadership of a new government. An American delegation led by Colonel House arrives in Paris for the inaugural conference of the Inter-Allied Supreme War Council. In Great Britain, the Marquess of Lansdowne, a former Foreign Secretary, sends a letter to the Daily Telegraph urging the Government to seek a negotiated peace with Germany. In an agreement finalized in Washington, the United States agrees that Japan has “special interests” in China and Japan agrees to the “principle” of the “open door” policy; China is not consulted. President Wilson tells the annual convention of the American Federation of Labor in Buffalo that the way to a permanent peace is through victory. American forces achieve their first victories and suffer their first casualties of the war. Woman suffrage, still making slow but steady gains state by state, is approved in New York but rejected in Ohio. New York City’s reform mayor John Purroy Mitchel loses his bid for reelection to Tammany Hall’s candidate. The Espionage Act survives a First Amendment challenge.